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Some evidence of this has been observed in specific eurozone markets. Before the introduction of the euro, some countries had successfully contained inflation, which was then seen as a major economic problem, by establishing largely independent central banks.
The euro has come under criticism due to its imperialistic style regulation, lack of flexibility and  rigidity towards sharing member States on issues such as nominal interest rates.
Many national and corporate bonds denominated in euro are significantly more liquid and have lower interest rates than was historically the case when denominated in national currencies.
While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role.
A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate.
Unfortunately, there is also a cost in structurally keeping inflation lower than in the United States, UK, and China.
The result is that seen from those countries, the euro has become expensive, making European products increasingly expensive for its largest importers.
Hence export from the euro zone becomes more difficult. In general, those in Europe who own large amounts of euros are served by high stability and low inflation.
The euro has most specifically stimulated investment in companies that come from countries that previously had weak currencies.
The introduction of the euro has led to extensive discussion about its possible effect on inflation. In the short term, there was a widespread impression in the population of the eurozone that the introduction of the euro had led to an increase in prices, but this impression was not confirmed by general indices of inflation and other studies.
The study found that consumers based their beliefs on inflation of those cheap goods which are frequently purchased.
One of the advantages of the adoption of a common currency is the reduction of the risk associated with changes in currency exchange rates.
It has been found that the introduction of the euro created "significant reductions in market risk exposures for nonfinancial firms both in and outside Europe".
The introduction of the euro seems to have had a strong effect on European financial integration. According to a study on this question, it has "significantly reshaped the European financial system, especially with respect to the securities markets [ As of January , and since the introduction of the euro, interest rates of most member countries particularly those with a weak currency have decreased.
Some of these countries had the most serious sovereign financing problems. The evidence on the convergence of prices in the eurozone with the introduction of the euro is mixed.
Several studies failed to find any evidence of convergence following the introduction of the euro after a phase of convergence in the early s.
A study suggests that the introduction of the euro has had a positive effect on the amount of tourist travel within the EMU, with an increase of 6.
The ECB targets interest rates rather than exchange rates and in general does not intervene on the foreign exchange rate markets.
This is because of the implications of the Mundell—Fleming model , which implies a central bank cannot without capital controls maintain interest rate and exchange rate targets simultaneously, because increasing the money supply results in a depreciation of the currency.
In the years following the Single European Act , the EU has liberalised its capital markets and, as the ECB has inflation targeting as its monetary policy , the exchange-rate regime of the euro is floating.
The euro is the second-most widely held reserve currency after the U. After its introduction on 4 January its exchange rate against the other major currencies fell reaching its lowest exchange rates in 3 May vs Pound sterling , 25 October vs the U.
Afterwards it regained and its exchange rate reached its historical highest point in 15 July vs U. With the advent of the global financial crisis the euro initially fell, to regain later.
Despite pressure due to the European sovereign-debt crisis the euro remained stable. The formal titles of the currency are euro for the major unit and cent for the minor one hundredth unit and for official use in most eurozone languages; according to the ECB, all languages should use the same spelling for the nominative singular.
Official practice for English-language EU legislation is to use the words euro and cent as both singular and plural,  although the European Commission's Directorate-General for Translation states that the plural forms euros and cents should be used in English.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the currency. For other uses, see Euro disambiguation. For other uses, see EUR disambiguation.
Other partial users 1. Single euro payments area 13 from Abandoned treaties and agreements. Council of the EU Presidency. European Court of Justice.
Participating Schengen Area States. Candidate Countries for EU Membership. Foreign relations of EU Member States. Euro coins and Euro banknotes.
Single Euro Payments Area. History of the euro. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Eurozone crisis and Greek government-debt crisis.
Eurozone , International status and usage of the euro , and Enlargement of the eurozone. International status and usage of the euro. External adopters of the euro.
Currencies pegged to the euro. Currencies pegged to the euro within narrow band. External adopters of the US dollar.
Currencies pegged to the US dollar. Currencies pegged to the US dollar within narrow band. Euro exchange rate against U.
Linguistic issues concerning the euro. European Union portal Numismatics portal. The Caribbean Netherlands introduced the United States dollar in Official Journal of the European Union.
Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 7 June Total EUR currency coins and banknotes in circulation Archived from the original PDF on 22 February Retrieved 13 December Federal Reserve Statistical Release.
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 8 September Bank for International Settlements.
Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 29 January The European Central Bank: History, Role and Functions pdf 2nd ed.
Retrieved 18 December The adjustment is done on the basis of data provided by the European Commission. Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 26 November Archived from the original PDF on 5 December Retrieved 16 November Rules for expressing monetary units".
Central Bank of Ireland. Retrieved 26 January The introduction of euro banknotes and coins one year after COM ". Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 1 December Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 25 October Archived from the original on 11 October From Logo to Letter".
Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 6 August Archived from the original on 30 June Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 1 October Can the euro zone survive its debt crisis?
Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 24 July Retrieved 2 January A Critical Review of Sterp". Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original PDF on 25 August Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 8 November Straw says eurozone 'will collapse ' ".
Triennial Central Bank Survey. Retrieved 22 March Risk aversion in the Eurozone , Research in Economics , vol. Evidence from the European Car Market".
Journal of International Economics. The History of the Bundesbank: Lessons for the European Central Bank. The Euro and European Labour Markets".
Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original PDF on 24 July Review of International Economics. Review of World Economics.
Retrieved 13 July Is there a Positive Effect? Archived from the original PDF on 3 September It is the second-most traded currency on the forex market, after the US Dollar , and also a major global reserve currency.
The European Currency Unit was a theoretical basket of currencies rather than a physical currency in and of itself.
Initially, eleven of the countries in the European Economic and Monetary Union replaced their own currencies with the Euro: Greece followed suit in , Slovenia in , Malta and Cyprus in , Slovakia in and Latvia in The Euro is used as a trading currency in Cuba, North Korea, and Syria and several currencies are pegged to it.
Value of Obsolete National Currencies Euro bank notes and coins began circulating in with old notes and coins gradually being withdrawn from circulation.
The precise dates that each old currency ceased being legal tender and their official fixed rates are shown in the table below. Spelling and Capitalization The official spelling of the EUR currency unit is "euro", with a lower case "e"; however, the common industry practice is to spell it "Euro", with a capital "E".
Many languages have different official spellings for the Euro, which also may or may not coincide with general use. These sites include recent news on the Euro as well as issues like implementation, spelling, legislation, and more.